Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Categories : Latin words prefixed with per- Latin 3-syllable words Latin terms with IPA pronunciation Latin lemmas Latin adjectives Latin first and second declension adjectives. Namespaces Entry Discussion. Views Read Edit History. This page was last edited on 21 July , at
Ergo Perplexus sumpliciter latin non magis est Perplexus sumpliciter latin commutativae iustitiae quam distributivae. Sed ipsa acceptio rei alienae potest tripliciter se habere. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: The Incipient Probabilism of Francisco de Vitoria. XXII dicitur, si effringens fur domum sive suffodiens fuerit inventus, et, accepto vulnere, mortuus fuerit, percussor non erit reus sanguinis. Respondeo dicendum quod restitutio, sicut dictum Preplexus, est actus iustitiae commutativae, quae in quadam aequalitate consistit.
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First up, the Latin.
- Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
- Perplexus formerly known as Superplexus is a 3-D ball-in-a-maze puzzle or labyrinth game enclosed in a transparent plastic sphere.
Novum Testamentum Graece fidei reddidit, Vetus juxta Hebraicam transtulit; Epistolarum autem ad Paulam et Eustochium, quia quotidie scribuntur, incertus est numerus.
Scripsi praeterea in Michaeam explanationum libros duos, in Sophoniam librum unum, in Nahum librum unum, in Habacuc libros duos, in Aggaeum librum unum. Multaque alia de opere prophetali, quae nunc habeo in manibus, et necdum expleta sunt.
Adversus Jovinianum libros duos, et ad Pammachium Apologeticum et Epitaphium. By the 13th century this revision had come to be called the versio vulgata, that is, the "commonly used translation", and ultimately it became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Holy Bible in the Catholic Church.
Saint Jerome had been commissioned by Pope Damasus to revise the Old Latin text of the four Gospels from the best Greek texts, and by the time of Damasus' death in A. After the death of the Pope, St.
Jerome who had been the Pope's secretary, settled in Bethlehem, where he produced a new version of the Psalms, translated from the Hexaplar revision of the Septuagint. But from to A. Jerome translated anew all 39 books in the Hebrew Bible, including a further, third, version of the Psalms, which survives in a very few Vulgate manuscripts.
This new translation of the Psalms was labelled by him as "iuxta Hebraeos" i. The translations of the other 38 books were used, however, and so the Vulgate is usually credited to have been the first translation of the Old Testament into Latin directly from the Hebrew Tanakh, rather than the Greek Septuagint.
Saint Jerome's extensive use of exegetical material written in Greek, on the other hand, as well as his use of the Aquiline and Theodotiontic texts of the Hexapla, along with the somewhat paraphrastic style in which he translated makes it difficult to determine exactly how direct the conversion of Hebrew to Latin was.
In his prologues, Jerome described those books or portions of books in the Septuagint that were not found in the Hebrew as being non-canonical: he called them apocrypha, but they are found in all complete manuscripts and editions of the Vulgate.
Of the Old Testament texts not found in the Hebrew, St. Jerome translated Tobit and Judith anew from the Aramaic; and from the Greek, the additions to Esther from the Septuagint, and the additions to Daniel from Theodotion.
Their style is still markedly distinguishable from St. In the Vulgate text, St. Jerome's translations from the Greek of the additions to Esther and Daniel are combined with his separate translations of these books from the Hebrew. Addressed to Pope Damasus, A. You urge me to revise the old Latin version, and, as it were, to sit in judgment on the copies of the Scriptures which are now scattered throughout the whole world; and, inasmuch as they differ from one another, you would have me decide which of them agree with the Greek original.
The labour is one of love, but at the same time both perilous and presumptuous; for in judging others I must be content to be judged by all; and how can I dare to change the language of the world in its hoary old age, and carry it back to the early days of its infancy? Is there a man, learned or unlearned, who will not, when he takes the volume into his hands, and perceives that what he reads does not suit his settled tastes, break out immediately into violent language, and call me a forger and a profane person for having the audacity to add anything to the ancient books, or to make any changes or corrections therein?
Now there are two consoling reflections which enable me to bear the odium—in the first place, the command is given by you who are the supreme bishop; and secondly, even on the showing of those who revile us, readings at variance with the early copies cannot be right. I am not discussing the Old Testament, which was turned into Greek by the Seventy elders, and has reached us by a descent of three steps. I do not ask what Aquila and Symmachus think, or why Theodotion takes a middle course between the ancients and the moderns.
I am willing to let that be the true translation which had apostolic approval. I am now speaking of the New Testament. We must confess that as we have it in our language it is marked by discrepancies, and now that the stream is distributed into different channels we must go back to the fountainhead. I pass over those manuscripts which are associated with the names of Lucian and Hesychius, and the authority of which is perversely maintained by a handful of disputatious persons.
It is obvious that these writers could not amend anything in the Old Testament after the labours of the Seventy; and it was useless to correct the New, for versions of Scripture which already exist in the languages of many nations show that their additions are false.
I therefore promise in this short Preface the four Gospels only, which are to be taken in the following order, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, as they have been revised by a comparison of the Greek manuscripts.
Only early ones have been used. But to avoid any great divergences from the Latin which we are accustomed to read, I have used my pen with some restraint, and while I have corrected only such passages as seemed to convey a different meaning, I have allowed the rest to remain as they are. This is the Latin of the original document. XC, s. II, Const. Ecclesia ergo in partibus occidentalibus illam ceteris versionibus anteposuit, quae Vulgata solet appellari quaeque maximam partem a s.
IV; Enchir. Tam egregiae existimationi documento est etiam cura eius textum ad criticam rationem apparandi, ac quidem per editionem, quae secundum altiorem doctrinam adhuc concinnatur a monachis Abbatiae S.
Inter praecipuas, 15 Iun. XXVI, , pp. Dei verbum, n. His omnibus Paulus Vl, Decessor Noster rec. Pauli VI, 23 Dec. LIX, , pp. Textus, ex hac ipsa recognitione exortus, quae quidem impensior fuit in quibusdam libris Veteris Testamenti, quibus s. Praeteritis temporibus Ecclesia arbitrabatur veterem Vulgatam editionem sufficere atque ad verbum Dei populo christiano impertiendum affatim valere: quod quidem eo satius iam efficere poterit haec Nova Vulgata editio.
Volumus denique, ut haec Constitutio Nostra firma et efficax semper sit et ab omnibus, ad quos pertinet, religiose servetur, contrariis quibuslibet nihil obstantibus. Datum Romae, apud S. Quoniam sollicitudo pastoralis vera est causa, qua Ecclesia movetur ut id quod fideliter tradit, renovet, Pius XII mente percipiens tempus advenisse ut in Breviario Romano, a sancto Pio V, eius decessore, edito, pro Psalterio Gallicano aliud substitueretur, concessit ut, sive in privata sive in publica recitatione nova interpretatio, a Pontificii Instituti Biblici professoribus confecta, adhiberetur.
Concilium Vaticanum II huiusmodi impulsiones in se recepit iisque obsecundavit, eas ad illum effectum adducens, quem tempora iam sinebant. Ex ea enim lectiones leguntur et in homilia explicantur, psalmi canuntur, atque ex eius afflatu instinctuque preces, orationes et carmina liturgica effusa sunt, et ex ea significationem suam, actiones et signa accipiunt.
Paulus VI sine mora, cum adhuc celebraretur Concilium, anno ineunte, Coetum peritorum nominavit, obnoxium Concilio ad exsequendam Constitutionem de Sacra Liturgia, qui optatam Psalterii emendationem statim est aggressus. Cogitatur de textu, in quo Vulgata editio Hieronymiana ad verbum exprimitur, ubi textum primigenium accurate exhibet, qualis in hodiernis editionibus, scientifica, ut aiunt, ratione confectis, continetur; prudenter vero emendabitur, ubi ab eo deflectit vel eum minus recte interpretatur, adhibita lingua Latinitatis biblicae christianae, ita ut respectus traditionis temperetur cum postulatis criticis aetatis nostrae.
In Liturgiam ergo Latinam textus inducetur unicus, qui, ad scientiam quod attinet, impugnari non possit quique traditioni, disciplinae hermeneuticae ac sermoni christiano sit consentaneus. Die 10 Augusti Liber Psalmorum est editus, qui in Liturgia Horarum in locum versionis Pianae, quae anno prodierat, est substitutus. Commissio, paene tota e novis constans sodalibus, opus emendationis ad totum Vetus Testamentum transtulit textumque ita confectum annis et quattuor voluminibus edidit.
Cogitare libet textum certum esse fundamentum, in quo studia biblica dilectissimi cleri innitantur, maxime ubi bibliothecae, specialibus disciplinis patentes, difficilius consuli possunt et congruentium studiorum diffusio est impeditior.
Ut autem toto textu, qui nunc in seiunctas editiones est divisus, omnes valeant uti, is in unicam editionem eamque amplam, elegantem, habilem, sacro Libro dignam, historicam propter eiusmodi eventum colligetur.
In hanc alteram quoque editionem typicam, debito permissu obtento, quaedam retractationes sunt relatae, quas perspicuitas textus et uniformitas postulabant. Lectorem ad introductiones peculiares, ad quas res pertinent, remittimus, ut criteria cognoscat, quae Commissio in emendandis libris est secuta; normae vero generales, quas Commissio quoad versionem et linguam observabat, hae fuerunt:. Hieronymi quoties haec sensum textus primigenii fideliter reddit et facile intellegitur, nec ansam praebet ad eum minus recte intellegendum vel perperam interpretandum.
Si quando tamen vel in commentariis s. Hieronymi, ut non raro accidit, vel apud ss. Patres, vel in Vetere Latina versione textus primigenius verbis magis accommodatis et claris redditur quam in Vulgata editione, tunc hi modi eligendi esse videntur.
Ex altera tamen parte, versio singulorum textuum talis sit ut doctrina Novi Testamenti vel traditionis ecclesiasticae facile cum ea componi possit. Hieronymum haud raro inveniuntur, praesertim de Messianismo, in iis diiudicandis norma textus primigenii servetur, et versio ad regulam praecedentis commatis n. Semper autem caveatur ne libro alicui vel aetati plus tribuatur quam quod revera habuit, ita ut germanus progressus revelationis perspiciatur. Quod si agatur de textibus, qui decursu temporum realem progressionem habuerunt, in iis vertendis ea vocabula seligantur quae eiusmodi progressioni excipiendae sint apta.
Ratio scilicet est habenda usus textuum, qui fit in Liturgia, sive in recitatione sive in cantu. Idem verbum seu vocabulum Hebraicum vel Graecum non idem omnino verbum Latinum exposcit nec patitur; eligendum igitur est verbum homologum, quod contextus requirit, vel pressius verborum significationi respondet.
Ad morphologiam et ad syntaxin et stilum quod attinet, lingua Latina, qua Nova Vulgata utitur, similis erit linguae christianae antiquae. Ideo omnia vocabula christianae Latinitatis servanda sunt, licet aetate classica aliam significationem habuerint, e. Constructiones syntacticae admittuntur, quas auctores aetatis classicae repudiabant, e. Regula Latinitatis christianae servanda est etiam in usu particularum praepositionum et coniunctionum et pronominum, prae omnibus cauto ut fideliter reddatur sensus textus primigenii.
Huc pertinent haud pauci Hebraismi, qui saepissime occurrunt apud auctores christianos praesertim in Vulgata et in Vetere Latina versione. Universe dici potest quod si agitur de meris Hebraismis, qui Latinitatem undique offendunt vel sunt Latine parum intellegibiles vel obscuri, tunc manifeste corrigendi sunt. Quod ad nomina propria personarum et locorum attinet, opera est data, praesertim in hac altera editione, ut saltem in eodem libro eademque significatione uniformitas servaretur, praelato, ut patet, scribendi modo certiore aut, in re dubia, editionis Xystinae—Clementinae ratione expressa, quae propius accedit ad formam Graecam, quae, ad hoc quod pertinet, est textu Masoretico antiquior.
Orthographia, attento fine liturgico Novae Vulgatae editionis, qui imprimis perspicuitatem exposcit, non sequitur varietatem exemplarium manu scriptorum, sed usum, qui hac aetate magis invaluit; qua in re studium est positum in uniformitate. In Nova Vulgata editione idem ordo librorum servatur, qui proprius est editionis Xystinae—Clementinae. Ordo autem numerorum capitum et versiculorurn conformatus est numerandi rationi, quae in quibusque textibus primigeniis invenitur.
Textus denique poetici secundum ordinem versuum sunt typographice dispositi, ratione, ut decet, habita necessitatum Liturgiae Horarum. Praeses Pontificiae Commissionis pro Nova Vulgata edizione. Ut iudicari possit de recognitione, publico usui in Ecclesia destinatae, Veteris Vulgatae editionis, expedit de modo exponere, qui ad emendandos quosdam libros Sacrae Scripturae necessarius est visus, necnon de peculiaribus quaestionibus, quae ortae sunt, ac de earum solutione. Si a textu Masoretico interdum recessimus, in notis criticis rationem emendationis protulimus.
Huius autem versionis illam adhibuimus editionem, quam critice paravit Alfredus Rahlfs, quaeque Stutgardiae anno edita est. Haec editio, maxima ex parte solis codicibus B S A nixa, etiam Origenis et Luciani recensiones aliosque fontes minores admittit.
Weber recensuit adiuvantibus B. Fischer, I. Gribomont, H. Sparks, W. In recensendo Pentateucho normas generales secuti sumus, unde Vulgatae editionis textum tunc tantum emendavimus, cum validae rationes sive criticae textualis sive scientiae philologae id postulare viderentur.
Attamen huiusmodi emendationes ita factae sunt, ut novae elocutiones cum lingua Latina Vulgatae editionis concinerent eiusque veluti colorem ac stilum conservarent.
Maximas ergo partes venerandae Vulgatae traditioni tribuimus in qua summe eminent libri Pentateuchi, excepto Levitico. Vulgatae verba, ubicumque textum Hebraicum fideliter reddunt, etiam quoad sensum tantum, ibi servata sunt; sin autem, congrua elegimus vocabula, quae in aliis libris Veteris et Novi Testamenti occurrunt.
Item eadem vocabula Latina generatim servata sunt pro quibusdam typicis vocibus Hebraicis, e. Conservati etiam sunt semitismi qui dicuntur, e. Meriba, Massa, Mosoch, Misar etc.
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