These materials include books, articles, videos and web sites. A few items are annotated. Hosted at Stanford, this site is a joint project of environmental historians from Brazil and at Stanford. Latin Focus Provides detailed economic and financial information for the major countries of Latin America. Includes economic indicators, briefings and forecasts as well as current economic news and a useful subject specific web directory.
Start on. The outbreak of Americaa War I in disrupted British and other European investment in Latin America, and the international economic order vanished. Kennedy to proclaim the Alliance for Amdrica indesigned to aid other Latin American governments with implementing programs to alleviate poverty and promote development. In Economy in latin america lanic Mexico and the central Andes where large sedentary, hierarchically organized populations lived, large tributary regimes or empires emerged, and there were cycles of ethno-political control of territory, which ceased at the boundaries of sedentary populations. With independence, Iberian-born Spanish merchants who were key factors in the transatlantic trade and the availability of credit to silver miners exited from Spanish America, through self-exile, expulsion, or loss of life, draining the newly independent countries of entrepreneurs and professionals. Japinies sex Rica. Brazil's rising productivity depends on the strengthening of its competition, improvement of infrastructure, and fewer administrative barriers. Governments are still looking for small partnerships between the public and private sectors to reduce inadequacies in the trade dynamic.
Slut chavs. Associations & Organizations
Latin American countries' borrowing from U. Argentina was expected to see some growth but has its own battles with high inflation and falling GDP. ScotiaBank Global Outlook. Gross National Happiness Net material product Research and development spending. The vulnerabilities in the arrangement were initially ignored. Trusted Internet portal for Latin American Studies content since Stanford University Press, Foreign capital investment, construction of infrastructure, such as railroads, growth in the Economy in latin america lanic sector with immigration from abroad, strengthening of institutions, and expansion of education aided industrial growth and economic expansion. Retrieved 28 October Getting goods to markets or ports generally involved mule trains. Tobacco was cultivated in various regions of Latin America for local consumption, but in the eighteenth century, the Spanish crown created a monopoly on the cultivation of tobacco and created royal factories to produce cigars and cigarettes. Lucia St. During the Aztec Economy in latin america lanic, an elite group of long-distance merchants, the pochteca functioned as traders in high value goods as well as scouts to identify potential areas for future conquests of the Aztec Triple Alliance. The Dominatrix arwen were comprised on men who had no previous experience Perplexus sumpliciter latin governing, so that it was challenging to draft laws, including those to shape economic activity. It includes members from Latin America as Elegant ebonies as industrialized countries elsewhere.
- The Economist explains: Why malaria is spreading in Venezuela.
- Headwinds from trade tensions and country-specific factors are seen stunting activity.
- Latin America as a region has multiple nation-states, with varying levels of economic complexity.
Latin America as a region has multiple nation-states, with varying levels of economic complexity. The Latin American economy is an export-based economy consisting of individual countries in the geographical regions of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. The socioeconomic patterns of what is now called Latin America were set in the colonial era when the region was controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese empires. Up until independence in the early nineteenth century, colonial Latin American regional economies boomed.
Many parts of the region had favorable factor endowments of deposits of precious metals, mainly silver, or tropical climatic conditions and locations near coasts that allowed for the development of cane sugar plantations.
In the nineteenth century following independence, many economies of Latin America declined. Foreign capital investment, construction of infrastructure, such as railroads, growth in the labor sector with immigration from abroad, strengthening of institutions, and expansion of education aided industrial growth and economic expansion.
As of , the population of Latin America is million people  and the total gross domestic product of Latin America in was 5. The main exports from Latin America are agricultural products and natural resources such as copper, iron, and petroleum. In , the Latin American economy contracted 0. Historically, Latin America has been an export-based, with silver and sugar being the motors of the colonial economy. The region remains a major source of raw materials and minerals.
Latin America has large areas of land that are rich in minerals and other raw materials. Infrastructure in Latin America has been classified as sub-par compared to economies with similar income levels. These economies have been given positive outlooks for by Morgan Stanley.
Because of its strong growth potential and wealth of natural resources, Latin America has attracted foreign investment from the United States and Europe. In Mesoamerica and the highland Andean regions, complex indigenous civilizations developed, as agricultural surpluses allowed social and political hierarchies to develop. In central Mexico and the central Andes where large sedentary, hierarchically organized populations lived, large tributary regimes or empires emerged, and there were cycles of ethno-political control of territory, which ceased at the boundaries of sedentary populations.
In both central Mexico and the central Andes, households of commoners cultivated land and rendered tribute and labor to local authorities, who would then forward goods to authorities further up the hierarchy. In the circum-Caribbean region, Amazonia, the peripheries of North and South America, semi-sedentary and non-sedentary nomadic peoples had much political or economic integration.
Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations developed in the absence of animal power and complicated agricultural tools. In Mesoamerica, there was extensive cultivation of maize , accomplished by hand-held digging stick, and harvesting of the ripened cobs done manually. In the Andes, with steep hillsides and relatively little flat land for agriculture, the indigenous built terraces to increase agricultural land. In general, there was no such general modification of the topography in Mesoamerica, but at the southern, freshwater portion of the central lake system, indigenous peoples built chinampas , mounds of earth for intense cultivation.
In Mesoamerica there were no large domesticated animals prior to the arrival of the Spaniards to ease labor or provide meat, manure, or hides. In the Andes, the staple crops were potatoes , quinoa and maize , cultivated using human labor. New World camelids such as llamas and alpacas were domesticated by Andean peoples and were used as pack animals for light loads and were a source of wool, meat and guano.
In both Mesoamerica and the central Andes cultivated cotton , which was woven into lengths of textiles and worn by locals and rendered in tribute. Both Mesoamerica and the Inca empire required payments of tribute in labor and material goods.
But in contrast to Mesoamerica's trade and markets, the economy of Inca empire functioned without markets or a medium of exchange money. The Inca economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars: as "feudal, slave, socialist here one may choose between socialist paradise or socialist tyranny "  The Inca rulers constructed large warehouses or Qullqa to store foodstuffs to supply the Inca military, to distribute goods to the populace for ritual feasting, and to aid the population in lean years of bad harvests.
The Inca had an extensive road system , linking key areas of the empire, and some parts are extant in the modern era. The roads were used by the military and for transport of goods by llamas, for warehousing in the stone-built qullqas. Stopping places or tambos were built approximately a day's travel along the roads, near the warehouses. Gorges were spanned by rope bridges, which did not permit pack animal use.
The Inca road system was costly investment in permanent infrastructure, which had no equivalence in the Aztec Empire. There were land transport routes without improvement, with the exception of the causeways linking the island where the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was located.
Sections could be removed to prevent invading forces. Around the lake system of central Mexico, canoes transported people and goods. In Mesoamerica trade networks and fixed markets were established quite early, during the Formative period c.
Trade differs from tribute, which is one-way from subordinate to ruling power, whereas trade was a two-way exchange with profit as a desired outcome. Some market places functioned as regularly scheduled one-day markets, while others, such as the great market at Tlatelolco , was a vast fixed emporium of goods flowing to the capital of the Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlan.
The Nahuatl word for market place, tianquiztli has become in modified fashion in modern Mexican Spanish the word tianguis. Many Mexican towns with a significant indigenous population continue to hold regularly scheduled market days, frequented by locals for ordinary household or work goods, with craft goods being particularly appealing to tourists. During the Aztec period, an elite group of long-distance merchants, the pochteca functioned as traders in high value goods as well as scouts to identify potential areas for future conquests of the Aztec Triple Alliance.
They were organized into a guild-like structure and were non-noble elites were emissaries of the Aztec state, benefiting the investors in their expeditions and gaining state protection for their activities. Since goods had to be transported by human porters , called tlameme in Nahuatl, bulk products such as maize were not part of the long distance trade. Cacao beans functioned as a medium of exchange in the Aztec period. Only in Mesoamerica did a system of writing develop and used for record keeping of tributes rendered from particular regions, such as seen in Codex Mendoza with particular polities in a region were shown by a unique pictogram, and the collective tribute rendered from that region shown in pictographic fashion.
In the Andean region, no system of writing developed, but record keeping was accomplished with the use of the quipu , knots that could record information. The islands of the Caribbean were fairly densely populated with sedentary, subsistence agriculturalists, No complex hierarchical social or political system evolved there. There were no tribute or labor requirements of inhabitants that could be co-opted by the Europeans upon their arrival as subsequently happened in central Mexico and the Andean regions.
Small gold ornaments and jewelry were created in the region, but there is no evidence of metals being used as a medium of exchange nor their being highly valued except as ornamentation. The natives did not know how to mine gold, but knew where nuggets could be found in streams. On the Pearl Coast of Venezuela, natives had collected large numbers of pearls, and, with the arrival of the Europeans, they were ready to use them in trade. In northern Mexico, the southern part of South America, and in Amazonia, there were populations of semi-sedentary and nomadic peoples living in small groups and pursuing subsistence activities.
In the tropical rain forests of South America, Arawakan, Cariban, and Tupian peoples lived, often pursuing slash-and-burn agriculture and moving when soil fertility declined after a couple of planting seasons. Hunting and fishing often supplemented the crops. The Caribs, for whom the Caribbean is named, were a mobile maritime people, with ocean going canoes used in long distance voyages, warfare, and fishing. They were fierce and aggressive warriors, and with the arrival of the Europeans, hostile, mobile, resistant to conquest, and accused of cannibalism.
The settled populations of central Mexico viewed these groups with contempt as barbarians, and the contempt was reciprocated. The Spanish empire and the Portuguese empire ruled much of the New World from the early sixteenth century until the early nineteenth, when Spanish America and Brazil gained their independence. The wealth and importance of colonial Latin America was based on two main export products: silver and sugar. Many histories of the colonial era end with the political events of independence, but a number of economic historians see important continuities between the colonial era and the post-independence era up to around The continuities from the colonial era in the economies and institutions had an important impact on the new nation-states' subsequent development.
Spain quickly established full colonies on Caribbean islands, especially Hispaniola now Haiti and the Dominican Republic and Cuba, following the first of Christopher Columbus in They founded cities as permanent settlements, where institutions of crown rule were established for civil administration and the Roman Catholic Church. Cities attracted a range of settlers. Although the Spanish were to encounter the high civilizations of the Aztecs and the Incas in the early sixteenth century, their quarter-century of settlement in the Caribbean established some important patterns that persisted.
Spanish expansionism had a tradition dating to the reconquest of the peninsula from the Muslims, completed in Participants in the military campaigns expected material rewards for their service.
In the New World, these rewards to Spaniards were grants to individual men for the labor service and tribute of particular indigenous communities, known as the encomienda. Evidence of gold in the Caribbean islands prompted Spanish holders of encomiendas to compel their indigenous to mine for gold in streams, often to the detriment of cultivating their crops. Placer mining initially produced enough wealth to keep the Spanish enterprise going, but the indigenous population was in precipitous decline even before the easily exploitable deposits were exhausted by around Spanish exploration sought indigenous slaves to replace the native populations of the first Spanish settlements.
Spaniards sought another high value product and began cultivating sugar cane , a crop imported from Spanish-controlled Atlantic islands. Indigenous labor was replaced by African slave labor, and initiated centuries of the slave trade. It remained an integral part of Spanish political and economic policy during the colonial era. Once Spaniards encountered the mainland of North and South America, it was clear to them that there were significant factor endowments , in particular large deposits of silver and large, stratified populations of indigenous whose labor Spaniards could exploit.
As in the Caribbean, individual Spanish conquerors in Mexico and Peru gained access to indigenous labor through the encomienda , but the indigenous populations were larger and their labor and tribute were mobilized by their indigenous rulers through existing mechanisms.
As the importance of the conquest of central Mexico became known in Spain, Spaniards immigrated to the New World in great numbers. At the same time, the crown became concerned that the small group of Spanish conquerors holding encomiendas monopolized much of the indigenous labor force and that the conquerors gained too much power and autonomy of the crown. Europeans brought in viruses and bacteria such as smallpox, measles, and some unidentified diseases.
The indigenous populations had no resistance, resulting in devastating epidemics causing widespread death. In economic terms, those deaths meant a smaller labor force and fewer payers of tribute goods. In central areas, the encomienda was phased out largely by the end of the sixteenth century, with other forms of labor mobilization coming into play. Although the encomienda did not directly lead to the development of landed estates in Spanish America, encomenderos were in a position to create enterprises near where they had access to forced labor.
These enterprises did lead indirectly to the development of landed estates or haciendas. The crown had attempted to expand other Spaniards' access to indigenous labor beyond the encomenderos through a system of crown-directed distribution of labor known as the examined the shift from encomienda labor awarded to just a few Spaniards via the repartimiento to later-arriving Spaniards, who had been excluded from the original awards.
This had the effect of undermining the growing power of the encomendero group, but that group found ways to engage free labor to maintain the viability and profitability of their landed estates. The Spanish discovery of silver in huge deposits was the great transformative commodity for the Spanish empire's economy.
The silver peso was both an export commodity as well as the first global money, transforming the economies of Europe as well as China. Since mercury is a poison, there were ecological and health impacts on human and animal populations. Zacatecas ,  Guanajuato ,  and Parral  were found in the region of so-called barbarian Indians, or Chichimecas , who resisted conquest.
The Chichimec War lasted over 50 years, with the Spaniards finally bringing the conflict through supplying the indigenous with food, blankets, and other goods in what was terms "peace by purchase," securing the transportation routes and Spanish settlements from further attack.
California did not look promising enough in the Spanish period to attract significant Spanish settlement, but in after it was acquired by the U. Sugar was the other major export product in the colonial era, using the factor endowments of rich soils, tropical climate , and areas of cultivation close to coasts to transport by the refined sugar to Europe.
Labor, a key factor for production was missing, since the indigenous populations in the tropical areas were initially small and did not have a pre-existing system of tribute and labor requirements. That small population then disappeared entirely.
Economic Forecasts from the World's Leading Economists. But the remittances of money to their non-migrating families represent an important infusion to the countries' economies. As in the Caribbean, individual Spanish conquerors in Mexico and Peru gained access to indigenous labor through the encomienda , but the indigenous populations were larger and their labor and tribute were mobilized by their indigenous rulers through existing mechanisms. Sugar must be processed immediately upon the cane being cut, so that cultivation and highly technical processing were done as a single enterprise. Engerman and Kenneth L.
Economy in latin america lanic. Navigation menu
Thanks to this enhanced social spending, during the boom years the percent of people living in poverty in the region dropped from 34 percent to 21 percent, and the biggest middle class in Latin American history took shape. Currently, one-third of Latin Americans belong to the middle class in , that figure was 17 percent. Today, for the first time, members of this middle class outnumber those living in poverty. This organization often comes in the form of anti-government street protests , which have grown frequent from Mexico to Argentina.
These dynamics may produce positive outcomes like removing politicians and parties that have been in power for far too long, but they could also result in corrosive social conflict, government paralysis, and political instability. The aspirations of this new middle class are lofty and revolutionary.
Surprisingly, only 20 percent of those who identify as middle class feel their progress is due to the economic growth of their country, while 32 percent believe their success is due to their own hard work. Unfortunately, many may soon discover that their economic advances are not as permanent as they think, and that their hard work is not enough to maintain the improved standards of living they attained when the region was prospering.
We want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a letter to the editor or write to letters theatlantic. Hondurans march to demand the resignation of the country's president in Tegucigalpa in June. Nominal, Atlas method per capita PPP per capita. Wealth per adult. Gross National Happiness Net material product Research and development spending. Per capita. World Trade Organization. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
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WordPress Shortcode. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Latin America 1. I've included what I consider some of the best places to find unique and useful information, however, these sites are only starting points.
From the University of Texas at Austin. Compiled by Rita Wilson [rlwilson utsa. Some provide a demo database, or a trial subscription free-of-charge. They provide access to organized bodies of data useful for Latin American research.
These may provide fulltext articles, statistical information, or bibliographic citations. Some of these databases are created and maintained by government agencies or other public entities universities and provided free on the internet. The World Bank Resources contains fulltext of many project reports, statistics, newsletters, journals and other publications. I hope you enjoy exploring Latin America over the Internet as much as I do.
Categorized by country and by subject with direct clickable links to sites. Updated daily with a "What's New" section of new sites. Also searchable by key word. This source contains a selected list of electronic conferences, e- mail lists and newsgroups devoted to Latin America-related topics and how to join; an annotated list of resources available through gopher servers and FTP; a selected bibliography of published information; and links to other directories of World Wide Web sites of Latin American interest.
Well done. I've tried to keep this list as up-to-date as possible. Please let me know of any exclusions. Choose a Section: U. A legend? All we know is that it strikes in the night and has a weakness for blood. Put away the goats, and any other household pets, my friends, cause the Chupacabra may be coming to a barn near YOU. After three months of fearless research and daring expeditions, the Chupacabra Home Page will at last be updated!!. For the next few weeks, we will present to you the latest on the Chupacabra phenom.
Stay tuned. Our members include latinos and some of us who have lived and worked in Latin America. These include conferences, workshops, a newsletter, an Internet email list, on-line forums and a member directory. The group also makes available reports on specific trade opportunities in the various Latin American countries. These are psg. LATCO maintains an email list on the psg.
To date there have been newsletter-style reports on roundtable topics such as markets in Colombia and transportation issues in Mexico. Country Specialists at LATCO are members who are willing to share their experience in individual Latin American countries, act as a liaison between LATCO members and in-country business organizations, and coordinate country-specific work groups.
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